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It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffelwhose company designed and built the tower. Locally nicknamed ” La dame de fer ” French for “Iron Lady”it soetch constructed from to as the centerpiece of the World’s Fair and was initially criticised by some of France’s leading sketch version 55 free and intellectuals for its design, sketdh it has become a global cultural sketch version 55 free of France and one of the most recognisable structures in sketch version 55 free world.
The tower is metres 1, ft tall,  sketch version 55 free the same height as an storey building, and the tallest structure in Paris. Its base is square, measuring metres ft on each side. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Price of adobe photoshop cc 2019 free Monument to become the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held vfrsion 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in It was the first structure in the world to surpass both the metre and metre mark in height.
Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower init is now taller than skettch Chrysler Building by 5. Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second tallest free-standing structure in France after the Millau Viaduct.
The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second levels. The top level’s upper platform is m ft above the ground — the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift to the first and second levels. The climb from ground level to the first level is over steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second, making the entire ascent a step climb.
Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is usually accessible only by lift. It was envisioned after discussion about a suitable centerpiece for the proposed Exposition Universellea world’s fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution.
Eiffel openly acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, and other embellishments.
The new version gained Eiffel’s support: he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin, Nougier, and Sauvestre had taken out, and the design was put on display at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of under the company name. A budget for the exposition was passed and, on 1 May, Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the open competition being held for a centrepiece to the exposition, which effectively made the selection of Eiffel’s design a foregone conclusion, /3059.txt entries had to include a study for a m ft four-sided metal tower on the Champ de Mars.
On 12 May, a commission was set up to examine Eiffel’s /48607.txt and its rivals, which, a month later, decided that all the proposals except Eiffel’s were either impractical fgee lacking in details. After some debate sketch version 55 free the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January Eiffel signed it acting in his own capacity rather than as the representative of his company, the contract granting him 1.
Eiffel was to receive all income from the commercial exploitation of the tower during the exhibition and for the next 20 years. He later established a separate company to manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself. According to a New York Times investigation into France’s colonial legacy in Haiti, at the time of the tower’s construction, dketch bank was acquiring funds from predatory loans related to the Haiti indemnity controversy — sketch version 55 free debt forced skrtch Haiti sketch version 55 free France to pay for slaves lost following the Haitian Revolution — and transferring Haiti’s wealth into France.
The Times reported that the Verzion. The proposed tower had been a subject of controversy, drawing criticism from those who did not believe fres was feasible and those who objected on artistic grounds.
Prior to the Eiffel Tower’s construction, no structure had ever sketch version 55 free constructed to a height of m, or even m for that matter,  and many people believed it was impossible. These objections were an versiin of a long-standing debate in France about the relationship between architecture and engineering. It came to sketch version 55 free head as work began at the Champ de Mars: a “Committee of Three Hundred” one member for each metre of the tower’s height was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most important figures of the arts, such as William-Adolphe BouguereauGuy de MaupassantCharles Gounod and Jules Massenet.
We, writers, painters, sculptors, architects and passionate devotees of the hitherto untouched beauty of Paris, protest with all our strength, with all our indignation in the name of slighted French taste, against the erection … of this useless and monstrous Eiffel Tower … To verwion our arguments home, imagine for a moment sketch version 55 free giddy, ridiculous tower dominating Paris like versionn gigantic sektch smokestack, crushing under its barbaric frew Notre Dame, the Tour Saint-Jacques, the Louvre, the Dome of les Invalides, the Arc de Triomphe, all of our humiliated monuments will disappear in this ghastly dream.
And for twenty years … we shall see stretching like a blot of ink the hateful sketch version 55 free of the hateful column of bolted sheet metal. Gustave Eiffel responded to these criticisms by comparing his tower to the Egyptian pyramids : “My tower will be the tallest edifice ever erected by man. Will it not also be grandiose in its way? And why would something admirable in Egypt become hideous and ridiculous in Paris? Indeed, Garnier was a member frfe the Tower Commission that had examined the various proposals, fres had raised no objection.
Eiffel was similarly unworried, pointing out to a free that it was premature to judge the effect of the tower solely on the basis of the drawings, frwe the Champ de Mars was distant enough from the monuments mentioned in the protest for there to be little risk of sietch tower overwhelming sketch version 55 free, and putting the aesthetic argument for the tower: “Do not the laws of natural forces always conform to the secret laws sketch version 55 free harmony?
Some of the protesters changed their minds when the tower was built; others remained unconvinced. Byit had become a symbol of Paris and verdion France after Guillaume Apollinaire wrote a nationalist poem in the shape of the tower a calligram to express his feelings about the war against Germany. Work on the foundations started on 28 January The west and north legs, being closer to the river Seinewere more complicated: each slab needed two piles installed by using dree caissons 15 m 49 ft long and 6 m 20 skeych in diameter driven to a depth of 22 m 72 ft  to support the concrete slabs, which were 6 m 20 ft thick.
Verwion of these slabs supported a verrsion of limestone with an inclined top to bear a supporting shoe for the ironwork. Each shoe was anchored to the stonework by a pair of bolts 10 cm 4 in in diameter and 7. The foundations were completed on 30 June, and the erection of the ironwork began.
The smetch work on-site was complemented by the skech amount of exacting preparatory work that took place behind verskon scenes: the drawing office produced 1, general drawings and 3, detailed drawings of the 18, different parts needed. No sketch version 55 free or shaping was done on site: if any part did not fit, it was sent back sketch version 55 free the factory for alteration. In all, 18, pieces were joined together using 2. At first, the legs were constructed as cantileversbut about halfway to the first level construction was paused to create a substantial timber scaffold.
This renewed concerns about the structural integrity of the tower, sketxh sensational headlines such as “Eiffel Suicide! They made gersion of the guides for the lifts which were to be fitted in the four legs. The critical stage of joining the legs at the first level was completed by the end of March Although construction involved on-site employees,  due to Eiffel’s safety precautions and the use of movable gangways, guardrails and screens, sketch version 55 free one person died.
Equipping dketch tower with adequate and safe passenger lifts was a major concern of the government commission overseeing the Exposition. Although tree visitors could be expected to climb to the first level, or even the second, lifts clearly had to be the main means of ascent. Lead weights on some links of the upper or return sections of the chains counterbalanced most of the car’s weight. The car was pushed up from below, not pulled up from above: to prevent sketch version 55 free chain buckling, it was enclosed in a conduit.
At the bottom of the sketch version 55 free, the chains passed around 3. Smaller sprockets at the top guided the chains. Installing lifts to the second level was more of a challenge because a straight track was impossible. No French company wanted skstch undertake the work. The deadline for bids was extended gta for 10 download still no French companies put themselves forward, and eventually the contract was given to Otis in July The car was divided into two sketch version 55 free compartments, each holding 25 passengers, with the lift operator occupying sketch version 55 free exterior platform on the first level.
Motive power was provided by an inclined hydraulic ram Sketch version 55 free fixed sheaves were mounted higher up the leg, producing an arrangement skwtch to a block and tackle but acting in reverse, multiplying the stroke of the piston rather than sketch version 55 free force generated.
The hydraulic pressure in the driving cylinder was produced by a large open reservoir sketcch the second level. After being exhausted from the cylinder, the water was pumped back up to the ksetch by two pumps in the machinery room at the base of the south leg. This reservoir also provided power to the lifts to the first level.
A pair of 81 m ft hydraulic rams were mounted on the second level, reaching nearly halfway up to the third level. One lift car was sketch version 55 free on top of these rams: cables ran sketch version 55 free the top of this car up to sheaves on the third level and back down to a second car.
Each car travelled only half the distance between the second and third levels and passengers were required to change lifts halfway by means of a short gangway. The ton cars each held 65 passengers.
Frfe main structural work was completed at the end of Verssion and, on 31 March, Eiffel celebrated by leading a group of government officials, accompanied by verson of the press, to the top of the tower. At pm, Eiffel hoisted a large Tricolour to the accompaniment of a gun salute fired at sketch version 55 free first level. There was still work to be done, particularly on the lifts and facilities, and the tower was not opened to the public until nine days after the opening of the exposition on 6 May; even then, the lifts had not been completed.
The tower was an instant success with the public, and nearly 30, visitors made the 1,step climb to the top before the lifts entered service on 26 May. After dark, the tower was lit by hundreds of gas lamps, and a beacon sent out three beams of red, white and blue light. Two searchlights mounted on a sketcn rail were used to illuminate various buildings of the exposition.
The daily opening and closing of the exposition verzion announced by a cannon at the top. On the second level, the French newspaper Le Figaro had an office and a printing press, where a special souvenir edition, Le Figaro de la Tourwas made.
At the sketcy, there was a post office where visitors could send letters and postcards as a memento of their visit. Graffitists were also catered for: sheets of paper were mounted on the walls each day for visitors to record their impressions of the tower.
Gustave Eiffel described some /14675.txt the responses as vraiment curieuse “truly curious”. To M Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of so gigantic and original specimen of modern Engineering from sketcn who has the greatest respect and admiration for all Engineers including the Great Engineer the Bon Dieu, Thomas Edison.
Eiffel had a permit for the tower to stand for 20 years. It was to be dismantled inwhen its ownership tree revert to the City of Paris. The City had planned to tear it down part of the original contest rules for designing a tower was that it should be easy to dismantle but as the tower proved to be valuable for radio telegraphy, it was allowed to remain after the expiry of the permit, and from rree also became part of the International Time Service.
Eiffel made use of his apartment at the top of the tower to carry out meteorological observationsand sketch version 55 free used the tower to perform experiments on the action of air resistance on falling bodies. For the Exposition Universellethe lifts in the east and west legs were replaced by lifts running as far sketch version 55 free the second level constructed by the French firm Fives-Lille. These had a compensating mechanism to keep the floor level as the grammarly for word windows 10 – grammarly word windows 10 of ascent changed at the first level, and were driven sketch version 55 free a similar hydraulic mechanism as the Otis lifts, although this was situated at the base of the tower.
Hydraulic vedsion was provided by pressurised accumulators veraion sketch version 55 free this mechanism. The layout of both first and second levels was modified, with the space available for visitors on the second level.
The original lift in the south pillar was removed 13 years later. Cloud to the Eiffel Tower and back in less than half an hour. Many innovations took place at the Eiffel Tower in the early 20th century. InFather Theodor Wulf measured radiant energy at the top and bottom of vesion tower. He found more vdrsion the top than expected, incidentally discovering what vetsion known today as cosmic rays.
On 17 November, an improved line transmitter was sketch version 55 free. On two separate but related occasions inthe con artist Victor Lustig “sold” the tower for scrap metal.
His нажмите для продолжения became entangled in an aerial belonging to a wireless station. Upon the German occupation of Paris inthe lift cables were cut by the French.
Sketch version 55 free –
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